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高中化学实验课教学问题分析总结;

发布日期:2018-12-24 12:49 来源:未知 点击:

高中化学实验课教学问题分析总结;
 
 
引言
就高中的化学这个科目而言,在高中化学课堂中多采用实验的教学方式,能够帮助学生在化学这个科目中更好地从基础方法入门。针对高中化学教学中存在的一些问题,老师一定要重视,同时找出相应的解决办法。
 
一、目前我国高中化学实验教学存在的问题
(一)实验教学得不到有效开展
高中教学实验在实践操作的过程中还存在一些不足之处,其中最重要的就是实验阶段。老师在授课的过程中设置的实验操作少之又少,整个课堂主要以学习知识点为主,很少有动手操作环节。其中的原因主要有三,第一,是学校教学设备不齐全,缺少实验器材和实验药品;第二,很多教师的观念较为传统,主要以传授知识为目的进行授课;第三,受传统教学模式的影响,学生的动手积极性不高。
 
(二)多媒体教学设备的滥用
在高中化学教学中,多媒体设备的滥用十分严重。很多授课教师对教室配备的多媒体设备过于依赖,为了省去做实验的环节,在网上找实验视频进行讲解。在这种教学环境下,学生很难真正地掌握知识点,无法通过感官来感受高中化学实验的乐趣。这样也不利于教师对学生动手能力的培养,在一定程度上抑制了学生的创新能力和创新精神。
 
(三)高中生缺乏亲自动手进行实验的机会
高中的课程设置主要是理论知识的学习,教师对于学生动手能力的培养还有待提高。在传统的学习过程中,学生处于课堂的被动地位,如此下去会阻碍学生动手能力的发展。近几年,我国教育不断地在进行改革,一些思想先进的教师已经认识到理论授课的弊端,逐步开始在课堂上培养学生的动手能力,但仍会受到学校实验器材或者实验条件的限制。
 
二、高中化学实验教学的改进措施
 
(一)转变教学观念
要想改变目前高中化学教学的现状,最重要的就是对学生和教师的观念进行改变。作为教师要逐渐培养学生的动手能力,在课堂上多开展一些有趣的化学实验,激发学生的兴趣,逐步培养学生的动手能力。实验的开展方式可以根据情况进行不同的设置,对一些复杂的实验可以让学生分组进行,这样不但能够培养学生的动手能力,还培养了学生的团队协作的能力。对于一些简单的实验可以让学生单独完成,让学生在自主动手中找到学习的乐趣。
 
(二)培养学生对化学实验的兴趣,改变教学方法
化学作为高中学习的一门重要课程,要想让学生有学习趣,首先要从教学方法上进行改变。作为一名授课教师,得有耐心,对于一些较难操作的实验也要尽量用实验进行展示,减少多媒体的使用次数。多媒体虽然能够对一些分子内部结构进行精确展示和描述,但是其毕竟是通过观看的方式进行学习,不利于学生对知识的吸收;其次,还要改变授课方式,在课堂是多开展师生间的互动,激发学生的学习兴趣,让学生从被迫学习转变为乐于学习。
 
(三)有效分析实验过程及结果
学生在实验过程中教师要时刻关注学生的实验进度,对于学生在实验中得出的实验数据教师要及时地进行检查,出现错误的数据教师要帮忙改正,同时帮助学生找到数据出错的原因,以至于学生能够继续后续实验,最终得到真实的实验结果。教师对于实验数据及时进行检查和更正是学生进行化学实验最重要的步骤,错误的数据不但能够导致实验结果出现错误,还能够间接反映出学生在实验过程中的问题所在,帮助学生找到问题,在后续的授课过程中解决问题。
 
(四)重视学生在课堂之外的动手实践
高中是我国各阶段教育中学生压力最大、课程最为繁重的一个学习阶段,这个阶段又是学生性格养成和未来发展的重要阶段。因此,在这一阶段对化学知识的学习尤为重要,学生的动手能力能否培养成型直接关系到学生未来生活的方方面面。但是,就我国教育现状,我国高中生在课堂上进行自己动手实验的时间少之又少。作为一名高中化学授课教师,要积极鼓励学生利用课余时间进行化学实验,既能够丰富课余生活,也能够在动手中对化学知识进行复习。
 
三、结束语
在高中化学教学中,实验教学是进行探究式学习的主要方法和重要途径,也是高中化学教学中最为常见的探究性活动。在这个过程中,教师能够培养学生的想象力和动手能力,巩固和提高学生的物理实验技能。
 
 
Key words: high school; chemical experiment; teaching concept
 
Introduction
As far as chemistry in senior high school is concerned, experimental teaching method is often used in senior high school chemistry class, which can help students get a better introduction from basic methods in chemistry. In view of some problems existing in high school chemistry teaching, teachers must pay attention to them and find out the corresponding solutions.
 
I. Problems Existing in Chemistry Experiment Teaching in Senior High Schools in China
(1) The experiment teaching can not be carried out effectively
There are still some shortcomings in the process of practical operation of high school teaching experiment, the most important of which is the experimental stage. Teachers in the course of teaching set up few experimental operations, the whole classroom is mainly to learn knowledge points, few hands-on operation links. There are three main reasons: first, the school teaching equipment is incomplete, lack of experimental equipment and experimental drugs; second, many teachers are more traditional, mainly for the purpose of imparting knowledge to teach; third, influenced by traditional teaching mode, students'initiative is not high.
 
(2) Abuse of multimedia teaching equipment
In high school chemistry teaching, the abuse of multimedia equipment is very serious. Many teachers rely too much on multimedia equipment equipped in the classroom. In order to save the link of doing experiments, they look for experimental videos on the Internet to explain. In this teaching environment, it is difficult for students to really grasp the knowledge points, and they can not feel the pleasure of high school chemistry experiment through sensory organs. This is not conducive to teachers'training of students' practical ability, and to a certain extent, inhibits students'innovative ability and spirit.
 
(3) High school students lack the opportunity to do experiments by themselves.
The curriculum of senior high school is mainly the study of theoretical knowledge. Teachers need to improve the training of students'practical ability. In the traditional learning process, students are in a passive position in the classroom, which will hinder the development of students'practical ability. In recent years, China's education has been constantly reforming. Some advanced teachers have realized the drawbacks of theoretical teaching and gradually began to cultivate students'practical ability in the classroom, but they will still be limited by school experimental equipment or experimental conditions.
 
II. Improvement Measures of Chemistry Experiment Teaching in Senior High School
 
(1) Transforming teaching concepts
In order to change the current situation of Chemistry Teaching in high school, the most important thing is to change the concepts of students and teachers. As a teacher, we should gradually cultivate students'practical ability, carry out more interesting chemical experiments in class, stimulate students' interest, and gradually cultivate students'practical ability. Experiments can be carried out in different settings according to the situation. Some complex experiments can be carried out in groups, which can not only cultivate students'practical ability, but also cultivate students' team cooperation ability. For some simple experiments, students can complete them independently, so that students can find the pleasure of learning in their own hands.
 
(2) Developing students'interest in chemical experiments and changing teaching methods
Chemistry is an important course in senior high school. In order to make students interested in learning, we must first change the teaching methods. As a teaching teacher, we should be patient. We should also try our best to show some difficult experiments and reduce the use of multimedia. Although multimedia can accurately display and describe the internal structure of some molecules, it is not conducive to students'absorption of knowledge through watching. Secondly, it is necessary to change the way of teaching. In the classroom, more interaction between teachers and students is carried out to stimulate students' interest in learning, so that students can change from forced learning to willing learning.
 
(3) Effective analysis of the experimental process and results
In the process of experiment, teachers should always pay attention to the progress of students'experiment. Teachers should check the experimental data obtained by students in time. Teachers should help correct the erroneous data, and help students find out the reasons for the errors, so that students can continue the follow-up experiment and finally get the real experimental results. Teachers timely check and correct the experimental data is the most important step for students to carry out chemical experiments. The wrong data can not only lead to errors in the experimental results, but also indirectly reflect the problems of students in the experimental process, help students find problems and solve problems in the subsequent teaching process.
 
(4) Attaching importance to students'hands-on practice outside the classroom
Senior high school is a learning stage in which students are under the greatest pressure and the most arduous curriculum in all stages of education in our country. This stage is also an important stage for students'character formation and future development. Therefore, it is particularly important to learn chemical knowledge at this stage. Whether the students'practical ability can be cultivated or not is directly related to all aspects of their future life. However, according to the current situation of education in our country, there is little time for high school students to do their own experiments in class. As a high school chemistry teacher, we should actively encourage students to use their spare time to carry out chemical experiments, which can not only enrich their after-school life, but also review their chemical knowledge in practice.
 
III. Concluding remarks
In high school chemistry teaching, experimental teaching is the main method and important way of inquiry learning, and is also the most common inquiry activity in high school chemistry teaching. In this process, teachers can cultivate students'imagination and practical ability, consolidate and improve students' physical experiment skills.
 


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